小而重要:揭示灵长类动物大脑之间的差异——人类、猿和猴子

Human Brain Cross-Section Model

一项新的研究调查了人类和非人类灵长类动物(如黑猩猩、恒河猴和狨猴)之间前额叶皮层(大脑的最前端区域,该区域在高级认知功能中起核心作用)中细胞的差异和相似之处.

一项新的研究表明,人类和非人类灵长类动物的大脑可能非常相似,尽管它们之间存在非常明显的物理差异。 然而,最小的变化可能会对发育和精神疾病产生重大影响。

了解使人类大脑与众不同的分子差异可以帮助科学家调查其发育过程中的中断。 一项新的研究调查了人类和非人类灵长类动物(如黑猩猩、恒河猴和狨猴)之间前额叶皮层(大脑最前部区域,该区域在高级认知功能中起核心作用)中细胞的差异和相似之处. 最近发表在期刊上 科学,这项研究是由包括威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校神经科学教授安德烈·索萨在内的一组研究人员进行的。

这些物种之间的细胞差异可能会阐明它们进化的步骤,以及这些差异如何与人类所见的自闭症和智力障碍等疾病有关。 在威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校怀斯曼中心研究大脑发育生物学的 Sousa 决定与

耶鲁大学
耶鲁大学成立于 1701 年,是一所位于康涅狄格州纽黑文的私立常春藤联盟研究型大学。 它是美国第三古老的高等教育机构,由十四个组成学院组成:最初的本科学院、耶鲁大学文理研究生院和十二个专业学院。 它以英国东印度公司总裁伊莱胡耶鲁命名。

“数据-gt-翻译-属性=”[{” attribute=””>Yale University lab where he worked as a postdoctoral researcher.

Human Chimpanzee Macaque Marmoset Brains

Researchers analyzed genetic material from cells in the prefrontal cortex (the area shaded in each brain) from four closely-related primates to characterize subtle differences in cell type and genetics. University of Wisconsin-Madison

“We are profiling the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex because it is particularly interesting. This cortical area only exists in primates. It doesn’t exist in other species,” Sousa says. “It has been associated with several relevant functions in terms of high cognition, like working memory. It has also been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. So, we decided to do this study to understand what is unique about humans in this brain region.”

Sousa and his lab collected genetic information from more than 600,000 prefrontal cortex cells from tissue samples from humans, chimpanzees, macaques and marmosets. They analyzed that data to categorize the cells into types and determine the differences in similar cells across species. Unsurprisingly, the vast majority of the cells were fairly comparable.

“Most of the cells are actually very similar because these species are relatively close evolutionarily,” Sousa says.

Andre Sousa

Andre Sousa. Credit: Photo by Andy Manis

Sousa and his collaborators found five cell types in the prefrontal cortex that were not present in all four of the species. They also found differences in the abundances of certain cell types as well as diversity among similar cell populations across species. When comparing a chimpanzee to a human the differences seem huge — from their physical appearances down to the capabilities of their brains. But at the cellular and genetic level, at least in the prefrontal cortex, the similarities are many and the dissimilarities sparing.

“Our lab really wants to know what is unique about the human brain. Obviously from this study and our previous work, most of it is actually the same, at least among primates,” Sousa says.

The slight differences the researchers found may be the beginning of determining some of those unique factors, and that information could lead to revelations about development and developmental disorders at a molecular level.

“We want to know what happened after the evolutionary split between humans and other primates,” Sousa says. “The idea is you have a mutation in a gene or in several genes and those genes now have slightly different functions. But if these genes are relevant for brain development, for example, how many of a certain cell is produced, or how cells are connecting to other cells, how is it affecting the neuronal circuitry and their physiological properties? We want to understand how these differences lead to differences in the brain and then lead to differences we can observe in adults.”

The study’s observations were made in the brains of adults, after much of the development is complete. This means that the differences may be occurring during the brain’s development. So, the researchers’ next step is to study samples from developing brains and extend their area of investigation past the prefrontal cortex to potentially find where and when these differences originate. The hope is that this information will lead to a more robust foundation to lay developmental disorder research on top of.

“We are able to do extraordinary things, right? We are studying life itself, the universe, and so much more. And this is really unique when you look around,” says Sousa, whose team included graduate students Ryan Risgaards and Zachary Gomez-Sanchez, research intern Danielle Schmidt, and undergraduate students Ashwin Debnath and Cade Hottman. “If we have these unique abilities, it has to be something in the brain, right? There is something in the brain that allows us to do all of that and we are really interested in knowing what it is.”

For more on this research, see New Clues to What Makes the Human Brain Different.

Reference: “Molecular and cellular evolution of the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex” by Shaojie Ma, Mario Skarica, Qian Li, Chuan Xu, Ryan D. Risgaard, Andrew T. N. Tebbenkamp, Xoel Mato-Blanco, Rothem Kovner, Željka Krsnik, Xabier de Martin, Victor Luria, Xavier Martí-Pérez, Dan Liang, Amir Karger, Danielle K. Schmidt, Zachary Gomez-Sanchez, Cai Qi, Kevin T. Gobeske, Sirisha Pochareddy, Ashwin Debnath, Cade J. Hottman, Joshua Spurrier, Leon Teo, Anthony G. Boghdadi, Jihane Homman-Ludiye, John J. Ely, Etienne W. Daadi, Da Mi, Marcel Daadi, Oscar Marín, Patrick R. Hof, Mladen-Roko Rasin, James Bourne, Chet C. Sherwood, Gabriel Santpere, Matthew J. Girgenti, Stephen M. Strittmatter, André M. M. Sousa and Nenad Sestan, 25 August 2022, Science.
DOI: 10.1126/science.abo7257


#小而重要揭示灵长类动物大脑之间的差异人类猿和猴子

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